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Die Militarmusik Forum » Musik » Other styles » Psychedelic Rock » Психоделический рок - Psychedelic Rock (вики/wiki (рус/eng))
Психоделический рок - Psychedelic Rock
MekhanizmDate: Sa, 30.04.2016, 14:26 | Post # 1
Marshall
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Reg. 14.12.2013 23:54


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тут копипаста из википедии и музпросвета - в целом стиль совсем странный, в своё время в детстве всё, что мог найти тогда прослушал, но что-то особенное не сильно понравилось, может кроме доорз. короче, думаю, на форуме эта сайкаделика пригодится.

Направление: Психоделическая музыка
Истоки: Индийская музыка, Психоделическая музыка, Блюз-рок, Фолк-рок, Джаз, Британский бит, Гаражный рок
Место и время возникновения: конец 1960-х Великобритания, США
Годы расцвета: 1960-1970-е годы
Поджанры: Эйсид-рок
Родственные: Блюз-рок, Краут-рок, Арт-рок, Психоделический фолк, Психоделический поп, Психоделический соул
Производные: Хард-рок, Хеви-метал, Краут-рок, Нью-эйдж, Прогрессив-рок, Стоунер-рок, Неопсиходелия

Психоделический рок (англ. Psychedelic Rock) — музыкальный жанр, возникший в середине 60-х годов в Западной Европе и Калифорнии (Сан-Франциско и Лос-Анджелесе). Психоделический рок связан с понятиями «психоделия» и «психоделики» (галлюциногены). Он также имеет тесные взаимосвязи с субкультурой хиппи и восточной (индийской) философией.

Психоделический рок — в целом экспериментальная музыка, в начале своего зарождения с основой на англо-американской музыкальной культуре под сильным влиянием восточного мистицизма традиционной и духовной индийской музыки. Ключевой фигурой психоделического рока является британская группа The Beatles. Именно увлечение гитариста группы Джорджа Харрисона индийской философией и древними индийскими учениями привело его и всю группу к увлечению индийской трансцендентальной музыкой. Известно, что Джордж Харрисон даже выучился играть на индийском ситаре. Эксперименты Битлов вызвали волну интереса к подобным экспериментам в передовой рок-культуре 60-х, появилось множество аналогичных групп в Европе и Америке.

Изначально психоделический рок не был связан с употреблением психоделиков — целью музыкантов являлось передать состояние трансцендентального сознания путём музыкальных образов, а не реклама ЛСД. Однако журналисты извратили суть психоделии — творчество Битлз неоднократно подвергалось различным исследованиям «психоаналитиков», интерпретациям «жёлтых газетчиков», поискам «скрытого смысла» — в итоге во многих психоделических композициях Битлз были «обнаружены» намёки на ЛСД: например, в такой композиции, как «Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds» критики углядели в заглавных буквах названия песни (LSD) и тексте некую пропаганду наркотика.

В дальнейшем музыканты психоделического рока неоднократно сообщали прессе, что их творчество не несёт в себе рекламы ЛСД, а является формой достижения трансцендентального сознания путём музыкального воздействия.

В статье «Психоделия: новое модное словечко и что оно означает», появившейся в октябре 1966 в газете Melody Maker, гитарист группы Hollies Грэм Нэш, посещавший ранее психоделические сессии в США, писал: «Они стараются воссоздать ЛСД-сессию без использования наркотиков… это попытка раскрыть сознание до предела. Они пытаются добиться того же самого, но посредством сочетания музыки и световых эффектов».

Характерной чертой психоделического рока стали продолжительные сольные партии ведущих инструментов, различные акустические эффекты, нестандартные гармонии, вызывающие состояния иррациональной реальности, отрешённости у слушателя. Живые выступления групп в этом жанре обычно сопровождаются ярким визуальным шоу с использованием света, дыма, видео-инсталляций и других эффектов.

Эйсид-рок

Эйсид-рок (англ. Acid rock) — музыкальный жанр, являющийся подвидом психоделического рока. Фактически, эти термины являются синонимами, однако эйсид-роком обычно называют музыку, непосредственно написанную или исполненную под воздействием «кислоты», то есть ЛСД. Среди пионеров направления — Grateful Dead, Blue Cheer и Vanilla Fudge.

Значимые группы

Английская психоделия

Поздние The Beatles (период 1966—1968)
Pink Floyd (1967—1970)
The Who (1967—1968)
The Animals (1967—1969)
The Rolling Stones (1966—1967)
Tomorrow
Twink
Сид Барретт
Cream
Донован
Pink Fairies
The Pretty Things
The Yardbirds
The Small Faces
The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Psychic TV
Ozric Tentacles с 1984 г.
The Moody Blues
Hawkwind
The Crazy World of Arthur Brown
Ранние Status Quo (период 1967—1970)
Ранние T. Rex (1967—1971)

Кентерберийская сцена

Кентербери, кентерберийская сцена (англ. Canterbury scene), кентерберийская школа или кентерберийское звучание (англ. Canterbury sound) — термины, описывающие общность музыкантов прогрессивного рока, музыкантов-авангардистов, джазменов, многие из которых работали в городе Кентербери (Англия, графство Кент) и его окрестностях в конце 1960-х — начале 1970-х годов. Многие известные британские авангардные и фьюжн-музыканты начинали свою карьеру в кентерберийских коллективах, в частности Фред Фрит и Алан Холдсуорт. С годами, по мере того, как участники коллективов менялись и возникали новые группы, термин стал чаще использоваться для обозначения музыкального стиля, поджанра, нежели территориальной общности музыкантов. далее

Soft Machine
Caravan
Gong
Hatfield and the North
National Health
Robert Wyatt
Steve Hillage

Американская психоделия

Группы — представители калифорнийского звучания:

The Doors
Grateful Dead
Jefferson Airplane
Quicksilver Messenger Service
Love
Blue Cheer
The Byrds
Country Joe and the Fish
Iron Butterfly
The United States of America
The Seeds
The Electric Prunes
Strawberry Alarm Clock
13th Floor Elevators
Kaleidoscope (U.S. band)
Steppenwolf
The Mothers of Invention
Captain Beefheart & The Magic Band

Группы из других штатов:

Butthole Surfers
The Deep
The Velvet Underground
Vanilla Fudge
MC5

Греческая психоделия

Aphrodite’s Child

Краут-рок

Краут-рок — особое направление психоделической музыки, возникшее в Германии

Amon Düül
Ash Ra Tempel
Can
Damo Suzuki
Faust
Zone six
Guru Guru
Electric Orange
Neu
Kraftwerk
Birth Control

Русская психоделия

Впервые в СССР термин «психоделический рок» был применён критиками к московской группе «Звуки Му», которая относится к пионерам российской психоделики. Также к пионерам психоделического рока относят музыканта и композитора Юрия Морозова, написавшего в 1973 году альбом «Вишнёвый сад Джими Хендрикса», который считается первым русским психоделическим альбомом.

В России психоделическая рок-музыка представляется более мрачной. Русская психоделия имела влияние готик-рока, постпанка, джаз-рока и арт-рока. Музыканты «сибирского андеграунда» конца 1980-х и начала 1990-х годов делали недолгий переход от панк-музыки к классическому эйсид-року. Ленинградские и свердловские музыканты первоначально играли академическую арт-музыку, близкую к психоделической. Московские исполнители, игравшие джаз-рок и экспериментальную музыку, со временем так же использовали психоделическое звучание.

Характерные представители жанра:

Сибирский андеграунд (Новосибирск, Омск)
Великие Октябри
Гражданская оборона (с 1993 года, до этого — в некоторых композициях)
Егор и Опизденевшие
поздний Коммунизм (1990)
Кооператив Ништяк (с 1998 года)
Пик Клаксон

Санкт-Петербург (Ленинград)
Аквариум (конец 1970-х — середина 1980-х)
АукцЫон
Пикник
Химера
Юрий Морозов

Москва
Воскресение
Дубовый Гаайъ
ДК
Звуки Му (с 1987 по 1993 год)
Крематорий
Мишины дельфины
Центр (с 1980 по 1983 год)
Дельфин

Екатеринбург (Свердловск)
Агата Кристи (с 1990 по 2000 год)
Наутилус Помпилиус
Урфин Джюс

Краснодар
Маша и Медведи

Неопсиходелия

Неопсиходелия (neo-psychedelia или neo-psychedelic) — направление музыки, во многом подражающее, преломляющее и находящееся под сильным влиянием психоделического рока 1960-х. Оно возникает одновременно в США и в Соединенном Королевстве на стыке 1970-х и 1980-х годов в основном среди коллективов, начинавших свою музыкальную карьеру как пост-панк-исполнители, и являющихся яркими представителями Мэдчестерской Сцены и Андеграунда Пейсли.

Термин «неопсиходелия» употребляется по отношению к творчеству музыкантов пост-психоделической эры, пользовавшихся в своём творчестве наработками классиков психоделического рока. Считается, что начало возрождению психоделик-рока положили такие пост-панк-коллективы, как Echo and the Bunnymen и The Teardrop Explodes; во многом вдохновлялись саундом психоделических групп 60-х представители т. н. «Пейсли-андеграунда», позже «осовремененное» психоделическое звучание легло в основу дрим-попового и мэдчестер-саунда. вики

Echo and the Bunnymen
The Teardrop Explodes
The Legendary Pink Dots
The Flaming Lips
Siouxsie and the Banshees
Spacemen 3
Elf Power
of Montreal
Stereolab
Broadcast
The Oscillation
Mercury Rev
Spiritualised
The Verve
The Olivia Tremor Control
Foster the People
Kasabian
Underground Youth
Tame Impala
The Warlocks
My Morning Jacket
The Black Angels
The Pillbugs
Temples

ru.wikipedia.org

Neo-psychedelia

Stylistic origins - Psychedelic rock, post-punk, psychedelic pop, alternative rock, indie rock, space rock, acid rock, psychedelic soul
Cultural origins - Early 1980s, United States and United Kingdom
Typical instruments - Bass guitar, drums, electric guitar, keyboard, synthesizer
Subgenres - Baggy, dream pop, New Weird America, shoegazing
Local scenes - Paisley Underground, Madchester

Neo-psychedelia is music that emulates or is heavily influenced by the psychedelic music of the 1960s. It began to be revived among British post-punk bands of the later 1970s and early 1980s and was taken up by groups including bands of the Paisley Underground and Madchester scenes, as well as occasional interest from mainstream artists and bands into the new millennium.

Characteristics

Neo-psychedelic acts borrowed a variety of elements from 1960s psychedelic music. Some emulated the psychedelic pop of bands like The Beatles and early Pink Floyd, others adopted the jangly guitars of folk rock bands like the Byrds-influenced guitar rock, or distorted free-form jams and sonic experimentalism of late 1960s acid rock. Some neo-psychedelia has been explicitly focused on drug use and experiences, while other bands have used it to accompany surreal or political lyrics.

History

1980s

As a distinct genre psychedelic rock declined towards the end of the 1960s, as bands broke up or moved into new forms of music, including heavy metal music and progressive rock. In the 1980s and 1990s there were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, including Prince's mid-1980s work and some of Lenny Kravitz's 1990s output, but it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie-rock bands. It began to be revived in the wake of the punk rock movement in the late 1970s and early 1980s by British bands of the post-punk scene, including The Teardrop Explodes, Echo & the Bunnymen, The Soft Boys, The Cure, and The Glove, Siouxsie and the Banshees also plunged into "full-on modern psychedelia" on their 1982 album A Kiss in the Dreamhouse. In London, then Holland, The Legendary Pink Dots mixed pop and exotic psychedelia with neo-classical influences. In the US in the early 1980s these bands were joined by the Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles, with acts like The Dream Syndicate, The Bangles and Rain Parade. On the East Coast of the US it was adopted by new wave bands in the 1980s, including Lyres from Boston, and The Fuzztones, The Chesterfield Kings and The Vipers from New York. New wave band XTC published two records under the pseudonym The Dukes of Stratosphear: an EP in 1985 and a full-length album in 1987. After the breakup of the Teardrop Explodes, Julian Cope continued an esoteric psychedelic course in his solo career.

Influenced by house music, northern soul and funk, a less nostalgic brand of neo-psychedelia, dubbed "scallydelia", developed in the late 1980s among alternative rock bands of the Madchester scene, including The Stone Roses, Inspiral Carpets and The Farm. Other alternative rock acts that delved into psychedelic territory included Nick Saloman's Bevis Frond, the space rock of Spacemen 3 and diverse acts like Mercury Rev and The Flaming Lips. The late 1980s would see the birth of shoegazing, which, among other influences, took inspiration from 1960s psychedelia. Critic Simon Reynolds referred to this movement as "a rash of blurry, neo-psychedelic bands" in a 1992 article in The Observer. With loud walls of sound, where individual instruments and even vocals were often indistinguishable, they followed the lead of noise pop and dream pop bands like My Bloody Valentine (often considered as the earliest shoegaze act), The Jesus and Mary Chain, and the Cocteau Twins. Major acts included Ride, Lush, Chapterhouse, and The Boo Radleys, who enjoyed considerable attention in the UK but largely failed to break through in the US.

1990s to the present

In the 1990s the Elephant 6 collective, including acts like The Apples in Stereo, The Olivia Tremor Control, Neutral Milk Hotel, Elf Power and of Montreal, produced eclectic psychedelic rock and folk. Other alternative acts to pursue psychedelia from the 1990s included The Brian Jonestown Massacre, Porno for Pyros, Super Furry Animals and The Dandy Warhols. In the early 1990s stoner rock emerged, combining elements of psychedelic rock, blues-rock and doom metal. Typically using slow-to-mid tempo and featuring low-tuned guitars in a bass-heavy sound, with melodic vocals, and 'retro' production, it was pioneered by the Californian bands Kyuss and Sleep.

In the UK the Madchester scene influenced the early sound of 1990s Britpop bands like Blur. The Verve mixed on 1960s psychedelia with the shoegazing aesthetic. Oasis also drew on 1960s psychedelic pop and rock, particularly on the album Standing on the Shoulder of Giants (2000). In the immediate post-Britpop era Kula Shaker incorporated swirling, guitar-heavy sounds of late-1960s psychedelia and with Indian mysticism and spirituality. In the new millennium neo-psychedelia was continued by bands directly emulating the sounds of the 60s, such as Tame Impala, Pond, Crystal Antlers, and The Essex Green, while bands like Animal Collective and The Bright Light Social Hour applied an experimental approach that combined genres from the 1960s and the present.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neo-psychedelia


 
MekhanizmDate: Sa, 30.04.2016, 14:43 | Post # 2
Marshall
Group: Admin
Posts: 7034
User #1
Male
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Reg. 14.12.2013 23:54


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М У З П Р О С В Е Т
ЧТО ТАКОЕ КРАУТРОК?

Немецкое слово Kraut переводится как зелень, ботва, сорняк, капуста, трава, в 60х в виду имелось и что-то вроде «деревенщины» – так англичане и американцы обзывали немцев. Потому неуважительно звучавшее слово Krautrock понималось как тупой немецкий рок. Сегодня слово краутрок обозначает немецкий новаторский рок начала 70х.

На самом деле, краутрок – это никакой не рок, гитарных рок-групп в Германии в 70х было достаточно, самыми известными были, разумеется, Скорпионс.
Краутрок-коллективы не писали заводных песен, а тяготели к длинным инструментальным проигрышам. Музыканты вдохновлялись свободным джазом, опусами таких современных композиторов как Джон Кейдж и Карлхайнц Штокхаузен, а также этнической музыкой – прежде всего, азиатской и африканской.

Они много импровизировали и экспериментировали, считая студию звукозаписи полноценным музыкальным инструментом, а электронный звук синтезаторов – очень большой ценностью, несущей подлинное освобождение.
Студия звукозаписи понималась не как помещение, в котором музыканты записывают уже отрепетированные песни, но как средство создания и обработки звука при помощи различных электронных приборов.
И в этом можно усмотреть отличие краутрока от такого явления как арт-рок или прогрессив-рок. Немецкий новаторский рок – за парой исключений - вовсе не требовал виртуозного владения инструментами, скорее, изобретательность предполагалась в обращении со студией звукозаписи.

Faust (вместе с Can) – были самым известным за рубежом коллективом. В самой Германии их игнорировали. Faust обитали в своего рода коммуне в деревне Вюммель недалеко от Гамбурга. Faust сильнее всех прочих обрабатывали, искажали звук, накладывали слой на слой.
В пьесе «Krautrock» с четвёртого альбома группы, звучащей меньше минуты, слышны две крайне характерные вещи. Во-первых, мы имеем дело со шквалом, потопом звука, музыка движется как поток нойза. Во-вторых, очевидно, что это минималистическая музыка, музыка повторяется петлями. То есть, она с одной стороны, нарастает как бесформенное чудовищное пятно, с другой стороны – стоит на месте.
В пьесе «Munich yesterday» (1971) Faust задвинули то, что можно считать своего рода классической схемой звучания, которая проявилась в массе иных мест у самых разных групп. Тут мы опять встречаем монотонный шквал звука, в который намешано много всего постороннего. Вместо баса – примитивный, но навязчивый синтезаторный рифф. Несложные барабаны очевидным образом зациклены.
Получилось гипнотическое громыхалово.

Несмотря на то, что их музыку до сих пор называют экспериментальным роком, до высот радикализма немецкие группы не доходили, с точки зрения академического авангарда они не делали ничего необычного.
Краутрок-коллективы были неотъемлемой частью контркультуры, при этом для радикальных политических коллективов и бардов самым главным был текст песен, месседж, понятный анархически настроенным слушателям. Никакого особенного месседжа у краутрок-групп не было, большей частью они были склонны к эзотерике.
Самым главным предметом заботы краутрок-коллективов был саунд. В сфере звукотворчества они проявляли безудержность и самодурство, доходящие до оголтелости. Потому лучше этот рок называть не экспериментальным, а маниакальным и оголтелым.

Краутрок стал первым интернационально значимым явлением в немецкой популярной музыке, британская музыкальная пресса признавала превосходство немецких коллективов в сфере сумасшедшего рока.
Краутрок-группы вовсе не были доминирующем явлением в немецкой музыке, скорее, речь должна идти о нескольких исключениях. Не относились эти группы и к какой-то единой тусовке, сцене или движению - каждый сидел в своём углу и занимался своим делом. Друг к другу эти группы относились не вполне дружелюбно, потому объединять их под одной вывеской, как будто они состояли из единомышленников, делающих общее дело, не совсем справедливо.

Краутрок был крайне недолгоживущим явлением, все наиболее значительные альбомы вышли в период между 1970 и 1974 годами. Это был яркий момент, вспышка.

К краутрок-коллективам относятся такие группы как Faust, Can, Guru Guru, Popol Vuh, Cluster, Neu!, Ash Ra Temple, Brainticket, Embryo, ну, и, разумеется, ранние Tangerine Dream и Krafrwerk.

Guru Guru

Коллектив играл во вполне консервативном рок-составе: гитара, бас, барабаны, но ориентировался на свободный джаз. Под джазом понималось свободное обращение со своими инструментами. После первых трёх альбомов пошло явное «не то».
На дебютном альбоме «UFO» (1971) есть пьеса «ЛСД марш». Она несколько напоминает то, чем занималась британская группа AMM, то есть тянущиеся, атмосферные звуки, однако музыка Guru Guru куда более груба и определённа.

Can

Наиболее известная в мэйнстрим-кругах группа краутрока – это кёльнский коллектив Can. Басист Хольгер Шукай и клавишник Ирмин Шмидт имели за плечами опыт серьёзной музыки, барабанщик Джаки Либецейт пришёл из джаза, певец Дамо Судзуки был уличным музыкантом, гитарист Михаэль Кароли – молодым рокером. Выступления группы двигались от сосредоточенных монотонных медитаций к истеричным выходкам. Я сказал, что в краутроке не было виртуозов. Виртуоз на самом деле был – барабанщик Can Джаки Либецайт. Он колотил сложный, грувоносный и абсолютно статичный бит. Басист Хольгер Шукай занимался переклеиванием коллективных импровизаций группы. Оттого на своих альбомах Can звучали вовсе не так, как на концертах или во время репетиций.

Brainticket

На юге Германии обитала группа Brainticket, она состояла из постоянно меняющегося коллектива музыкантов, которых возглавлял бельгиец Джоель Вандругенбек. Это был, пожалуй, самый психоделический коллектив среди всех краут-рок-групп, музыка демонстрирует, что её исполнители крайне интересуются маниакальными состояниями сознания, находящегося под воздействием галлюциногенных наркотиков. Музыканты собаку съели в космических пейзажах, которые открываются распахнувшемуся уму. Соответствующая космическая музыка представляла собой много слоёв электронного звука, в котором попадались и звуки ударных, и искорёженные голоса. Представлять себе надо неструктурированную подвижную иррациональную бездну.

Kraftwerk

Kraftwerk справедливо считаются отцами электро-попа и техно. При этом два первых альбома Kraftwerk, вышедшие в 1970 и 1971, содержат настоящий краутрок. Участники коллектива до сих пор отказываются их переиздавать.
Пьеса «Vom Himmel Hoch» c альбома «Kraftwerk 1» изображает паление самолёта. Электронные пассажи перемежаются с рок-пассажами, гитару сменяет синтезатор, живой барабанщик пытается быть монотонным и походить на ритм-машину, которая впрочем тогда звучала куда более скудно и вяло. Причудливая пьеса состоит из разнообразных не очень друг к другу подходящих пассажей.

Neu!

На первом альбоме Kraftwerk на барабанах стучал Клаус Дингер. В 1971м он вместе с гитаристом Михаэлем Ротером, тоже изгнанным из Kraftwerk, создал группу Neu!
Neu! – это, так сказать, Крафтверк с человеческим лицом, Neu! повлияли на массу музыкантов – начиная от Дэвида Боуи и панк-коллективов в конце 70х и кончая пострком 90х.
Neu! звучат нечеловечески - упруго, жёстко и электронно, они делают машинную музыку, вполне обходясь без синтезаторов. Клаус Дингер стучит как метроном, он был вторым чудо-барабанщиком краутрока, Михаэль Ротер играет аккуратно и просто, размывая звук гитары массой эффектов.

Ash Ra Temple

На каждой стороне первых грампластинок каждую сторону занимает одна пьеса. На дебютном альбоме «Ash Ra Temple» на барабанах стучит Клаус Шульце. Альбом «Schwingungen» содержит несколько могучих моментов отъезжания ума.

Tangerin Dream «Electronic Meditation» (1970)
Самая лучшая и самая нетипичная запись коллектива. Совершенно не синтезаторный звук: Эдгар Фрёзе – гитара, Конрад Шнитцлер – виолончель, Клаус Шульце – барабаны. Космический рок.

Cluster

Пожалуй, самым далёким от рока был дуэт Cluster, выпустивший два сумасбродных альбома в 1971 году. Барабанов в Cluster совсем нет, есть только синтезаторы и электрогитара, саунд похож на вой, на медленно нарастающие и опадающие склоны электронной холмистой местности. Бульканьем их назвать не поднимается рука, в этих склонах есть напор и даже машинность. Это поток неласкового машинного гула.

Краутрок вовсе не пропал незамеченным. Уже в конце 70х он всплыл в так называемом индастриале, машинный бит живого барабанщика сильно повлиял на постпанк. В середине 80х краутрок открыли такие группы как Sonic Youth, в 90х с модой на построк он пошёл буквально нарасхват. До сих пор не растерявшим своей сумасбродности и оригинальности остаётся, пожалуй, только лишь альбом «Meiguiweisheng xiang» немецкой группы Workshop, вышедший в 1997. Это один из самых интересных альбомов 90х. И в сегодняшнем саунде – среди групп, играющих психоделический фолк, можно легко усмотреть эту формулу: поток или даже шквал звука внутри машинно-повторяющейся минималистической ситуации. Следы краутрока есть и в таких японских коллективах как Acid Mothers Temple и Green Milk from the Planet Orange. Новый металлорок таких групп как Sun O))), наверное, можно считать death-краутом.

Было в старых немецких новаторских рок-альбомах и что-то ещё трудно описуемое, что в современной нам музыке встречается крайне редко. Современная нам музыка, как правило, правдиво воспроизводит образец саунда и конструктивного устройства композиции. Ощущения прорыва к неизвестным и страшным глубинам при этом не возникает, нет экстаза, нет истерики, нет самозабвения, нет угара. В старой музыке, кажется, было куда больше мяса и безумия.
Впрочем, и там где они были, их хватило ненадолго.

март-декабрь 2005
Андрей Горохов © 2005 Немецкая волна
http://www.muzprosvet.ru/krautrock.html


 
MekhanizmDate: Sa, 30.04.2016, 14:59 | Post # 3
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Psychedelic rock

Stylistic origins - Rock blues rock folk rock jazz Hindustani classical music garage rock baroque pop rhythm and blues
Cultural origins - Mid 1960s, United States (Texas and San Francisco) and United Kingdom (London)
Typical instruments - Electric guitar, bass guitar, drums, electronic organ, Mellotron, percussion instruments, sitar
Derivative forms - Hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, jam band, krautrock, progressive rock, stoner rock, shoegazing, experimental rock, gothic rock, funk
Subgenres - Acid rock, neo-psychedelia, raga rock, space rock
Fusion genres - Psychedelic pop, psychedelic soul, psychedelic trance, electronic rock, jazz fusion
Regional scenes - Haight-Ashbury, British underground

Psychedelic rock is a style of rock music that is inspired or influenced by psychedelic culture and attempts to replicate and enhance the mind-altering experiences of psychedelic drugs, most notably LSD. It often uses new recording techniques and effects and sometimes draws on sources such as the ragas and drones of Indian music.

It was pioneered by musicians including the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Byrds, and the Yardbirds, emerging as a genre during the mid-1960s among folk rock and blues rock bands in the United Kingdom and United States, such as Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Cream, the Doors and Pink Floyd. It reached a peak in between 1967 and 1969 with the Summer of Love and Woodstock Rock Festival, respectively, becoming an international musical movement and associated with a widespread counterculture, before beginning a decline as changing attitudes, the loss of some key individuals and a back-to-basics movement, led surviving performers to move into new musical areas.

Psychedelic rock influenced the creation of psychedelic pop and psychedelic soul. It also bridged the transition from early blues- and folk music-based rock to progressive rock, glam rock, hard rock and as a result influenced the development of subgenres such as heavy metal. Since the late 1970s it has been revived in various forms of neo-psychedelia.

Characteristics

As a musical style, psychedelic rock attempted to replicate the effects of and enhance the mind-altering experiences of hallucinogenic drugs, incorporating new electronic sound effects and recording effects, extended solos, and improvisation, and it was particularly influenced by Eastern mysticism, reflected in use of exotic instrumentation, particularly from Indian music or the incorporation of elements of Eastern music. Major features include:

electric guitars, often used with feedback, wah wah and fuzzbox effects units;
elaborate studio effects, such as backwards tapes, panning, phasing, long delay loops, and extreme reverb;
non-Western instruments, specifically those originally used in Indian classical music such as the sitar and tabla ;
a strong keyboard presence, especially electric organs, harpsichords, or the Mellotron (an early tape-driven 'sampler');
extended instrumental solos, especially guitar solos, or jams;
complex song structures, key and time signature changes, modal melodies and drones;
electronic instruments such as synthesizers and the theremin;
lyrics that made direct or indirect reference to hallucinogenic drugs, as in Jefferson Airplane's "White Rabbit" or Jimi Hendrix's "Purple Haze";
surreal, whimsical, esoterically or literary-inspired, lyrics.

Etymology

The term "psychedelic" was first coined in 1956 by psychiatrist Humphry Osmond as an alternative descriptor for hallucinogenic drugs in the context of psychedelic psychotherapy. The first musical use of the term psychedelic is thought to have been by the New York-based folk group The Holy Modal Rounders on their version of Lead Belly's "Hesitation Blues" in 1964. The first group to advertise themselves as psychedelic rock were The 13th Floor Elevators from Texas, at the end of 1965. The term was first used in print in the Austin American Statesman in an article about the band titled "Unique Elevators shine with psychedelic rock", dated 10 February 1966, and theirs was the first album to use the term as part of its title, in The Psychedelic Sounds of the 13th Floor Elevators, released in August that year.

As the countercultural scene developed in San Francisco the terms acid rock and psychedelic rock were used in 1966 to describe the new drug-influenced music and were being widely used by 1967. The terms psychedelic rock and acid rock are often used interchangeably, but some commentators have distinguished the former, which generally evoked the effects of psychedelic drugs, and acid rock, which can be seen as a more extreme subgenre that focused more directly on LSD, was often louder, made greater use of distortion and often consisted of long, improvised jams.

History

Origins

From the second half of the 1950s, Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg wrote about and took drugs, including cannabis and Benzedrine, raising awareness and helping to popularise their use. In the same period Lysergic acid diethylamide, better known as LSD, or "acid" (at the time a legal drug), began to be used in the US and UK as an experimental treatment, initially promoted as a potential cure for mental illness.

In the early 1960s the use of LSD and other hallucinogens was advocated by proponents of the new "consciousness expansion", such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts, Aldous Huxley and Arthur Koestler, their writings profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation of youth. The sensory effects of LSD may include seeing colored patterns, crawling geometric patterns, after image-like trails of moving objects ("tracers") and auditory effects such as an echo-like distortion of sounds and a general intensification of the experience of music. There had long been a culture of drug use among jazz and blues musicians, and, in the early 1960s, use of drugs (including cannabis, peyote, mescaline and LSD) had begun to grow among folk and rock musicians, who also began to include drug references in their songs.

Two of the most successful and influential acts of the era, Bob Dylan and the Beatles, were among the first to experiment with such references. Dylan's song "Subterranean Homesick Blues" (1965), which may have taken its title from a Kerouac novel, included the line, "Johnny's in the basement, mixing up the medicine", and his "Mr. Tambourine Man" (1965) requested "Take me on a trip upon your magic swirling ship". Whether this was intended as a drug reference was unclear, but the line would enter rock music when the song was a hit for the Byrds later in the year. Dylan indicated that he had smoked cannabis, but has denied using hard drugs. Nevertheless, his lyrics would continue to contain apparent drug references.

After being introduced to cannabis by Dylan, members of The Beatles began using LSD in 1965. The Beatles introduced audiences to many of the major elements of the psychedelic sound during this period, with guitar feedback in "I Feel Fine" (1964), "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)" from their 1965 Rubber Soul album using a sitar, and the employment of reversed audio tapes on their 1966 B-side "Rain". Drug references began to appear in their songs, in "Day Tripper" (1965), and more explicitly in "Tomorrow Never Knows" (1966), from their album Revolver.

The Beach Boys' Pet Sounds (1966) also contained many elements that would be incorporated into psychedelia, with its artful experiments, psychedelic lyrics based on emotional longings and self-doubts, elaborate sound effects and new sounds on both conventional and unconventional instruments.

By the mid-1960s, the psychedelic life-style had already developed in California. This was particularly true in San Francisco, due in part to the first major underground LSD factory, established there by Owsley Stanley. There was also an emerging music scene of folk clubs, coffee houses and independent radio stations catering to a population of students at nearby Berkeley, and to free thinkers that had gravitated to the city. From 1964, the Merry Pranksters, a loose group that developed around novelist Ken Kesey, sponsored the Acid Tests, a series of events based around the taking of LSD (supplied by Stanley), accompanied by light shows, film projection and discordant, improvised music known as the psychedelic symphony. The Pranksters helped popularize LSD use through their road trips across America in a psychedelically-decorated school bus, which involved distributing the drug and meeting with major figures of the beat movement, and through publications about their activities such as Tom Wolfe's The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (1968).

The Byrds, emerging from the Californian folk scene, and the Yardbirds from the British blues scene, have been seen as particularly influential on the development of the genre. Drug use and attempts at psychedelic music moved out of acoustic folk-based music towards rock soon after The Byrds "plugged in" to produce a chart topping version of Dylan's Mr. Tambourine Man in the summer of 1965, which became a folk rock standard.

A number of Californian-based folk acts followed them into folk-rock, bringing their psychedelic influences with them, to produce the "San Francisco Sound". Particularly prominent products of the scene were The Grateful Dead (who had effectively become the house band of the Acid Tests), Country Joe and the Fish, The Great Society, Big Brother and the Holding Company, The Charlatans, Moby Grape, Quicksilver Messenger Service and Jefferson Airplane. In 1966, The Byrds moved rapidly away from folk rock with their single "Eight Miles High", which made use of free jazz and Indian ragas, and the lyrics of which were widely taken to refer to drug use. The result of this directness was limited airplay, and there was a similar reaction when Dylan, who had also electrified to produce his own brand of folk rock, released "Rainy Day Women ♯ 12 & 35", with its repeating chorus of "Everybody must get stoned!".

In Britain, the Yardbirds, with Jeff Beck as their guitarist, increasingly moved into psychedelic territory, adding up-tempo improvised "rave ups", Gregorian chant and world music (in particular Indian) influences to their songs, including "Still I'm Sad" (1965) and "Over Under Sideways Down" (1966), and singles such as "Heart Full of Soul" (1965), "Shapes of Things" (1966) and "Happenings Ten Years Time Ago" (1966). They were soon followed by bands such as Procol Harum, The Moody Blues and The Nice.

Development in the USA

The San Francisco music scene continued to develop as The Fillmore, the Avalon Ballroom, and The Matrix began booking local rock bands on a nightly basis. The first Trips Festival, sponsored by the Merry Pranksters and held at the Longshoremen's Hall in January 1966, saw The Grateful Dead, and Big Brother and the Holding Company play to an audience of 10,000, giving many their first encounter with both acid rock, with its long instrumentals and unstructured jams, and LSD. Also from San Francisco, Blue Cheer played psychedelic-influenced rock in a blues-rock style.

A major figure in the expansion of the genre was promoter Bill Graham, whose first rock concert in 1965 was a benefit that included Allen Ginsberg and the then unknown Jefferson Airplane on the bill. He produced shows attracting most of the major psychedelic rock bands and operated The Fillmore. When this proved too small he took over Winterland and then the Fillmore West (in San Francisco) and the Fillmore East (in New York City), where the major rock artists, from both the US and the UK, came to play.

Although San Francisco was the centre of American psychedelic music scene, many other American cities contributed significantly to the new genre. The first psychedelic single to reach the US top 10 was "Psychotic Reaction" by San Jose band Count Five in July 1966. Los Angeles boasted dozens of important psychedelic bands. Besides The Byrds, these included Iron Butterfly, Love, Spirit, Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band, The United States of America, The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band, and the Electric Prunes; perhaps the most commercially successful were The Doors. Frank Zappa and his group The Mothers of Invention began to incorporate psychedelic influences in their first two albums Freak Out! (1966) and Absolutely Free (1967).

New York City produced its share of psychedelic bands, such as folk pioneers The Fugs, The Godz, and Pearls Before Swine, besides the Blues Magoos, the Blues Project, Lothar and the Hand People and the blues-influenced Vanilla Fudge. The Detroit area gave rise to psychedelic bands the Amboy Dukes, and the SRC, and Chicago produced H. P. Lovecraft. Texas (particularly Austin) is often cited for its contributions to psychedelic music: besides the 13th Floor Elevators it produced acts including Bubble Puppy, Lost and Found, The Golden Dawn, The Zakary Thaks, and Red Crayola.

Development in the UK

In the UK before 1967 media outlets for psychedelic culture were limited to stations like Radio Luxembourg and pirate radio like Radio London, particularly the programmes hosted by DJ John Peel. The growth of underground culture was facilitated by the emergence of alternative weekly publications like IT (International Times) and OZ magazine which featured psychedelic and progressive music together with the counterculture lifestyle, which involved long hair, and the wearing of wild shirts from shops like Mr Fish, Granny Takes a Trip and old military uniforms from Carnaby Street (Soho) and Kings Road (Chelsea) boutiques.

Soon psychedelic rock clubs like the UFO Club in Tottenham Court Road, Middle Earth Club in Covent Garden, The Roundhouse in Chalk Farm, the Country Club (Swiss Cottage) and the Art Lab (also in Covent Garden) were drawing capacity audiences with psychedelic rock and ground-breaking liquid light shows. A major figure in the development of British psychedelia was the American promoter and record producer Joe Boyd, who moved to London in 1966. He co-founded venues including the UFO Club, produced Pink Floyd's first single, "Arnold Layne", and went on to manage folk and folk rock acts including Nick Drake, the Incredible String Band and Fairport Convention.

British psychedelic rock, like its American counterpart, had roots in the folk scene. Blues, drugs, jazz and eastern influences had featured since 1964 in the work of Davy Graham and Bert Jansch. However, the largest strand was a series of bands that emerged from 1966 from the British blues scene, but influenced by folk, jazz and psychedelia, including Pink Floyd, Traffic, Soft Machine, Cream, and The Jimi Hendrix Experience (led by an American, but initially produced and managed in Britain by Chas Chandler of The Animals). The Rolling Stones had drug references and psychedelic hints in their 1966 singles "19th Nervous Breakdown" and "Paint It, Black", the latter featuring drones and sitar. The Small Faces managed to get drug references past the censors with their first single "Here Come the Nice" (1967) and introduced phasing on "Itchycoo Park" (1967).

The Crazy World of Arthur Brown added surreal theatrical touches to its dark psychedelic sounds, such as the singer's flaming headdress. Existing "British Invasion" acts now joined the psychedelic revolution, including Eric Burdon (previously of The Animals) and The Who, whose The Who Sell Out (1967) included psychedelic influenced tracks "I Can See for Miles" and "Armenia City in the Sky".


 
MekhanizmDate: Sa, 30.04.2016, 15:13 | Post # 4
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Peak years

Psychedelic rock reached its apogee in the last years of the decade. 1967 saw the Beatles release the double A-side "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Penny Lane", opening a strain of British "pastoral" or "nostalgic" psychedelia, followed by the release of what is often seen as their definitive psychedelic statement in Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, including the controversial track "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". They continued the psychedelic theme later in the year with the double EP Magical Mystery Tour and the number one single "Hello, Goodbye" with its B-side "I Am the Walrus". Also enigmatic and surreal was one of the most influential records of 1967, "A Whiter Shade of Pale" by Procol Harum, which reached number one in the UK Singles Chart on 8 June 1967, and stayed there for six weeks.

The Rolling Stones responded to Sgt Pepper later in the year with Their Satanic Majesties Request, and Pink Floyd produced what is usually seen as their best psychedelic work The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. In 1967 the Incredible String Band's The 5000 Spirits or the Layers of the Onion developed their folk music into full blown psychedelia, which would be a major influence on psychedelic rock. From 1967 Fairport Convention became a mainstay of the London Underground scene, producing their eponymous first album of American-inspired folk rock the following year. The Pretty Things' rock opera S.F. Sorrow, released in December 1968, featured both heavy psychedelic songs such as "Old Man Going" and "I See You" and poppy numbers like "S.F.Sorrow Is Born" and "Baron Saturday". The Small Faces' Ogdens' Nut Gone Flake (1968), released soon after, also pioneered the concept album, with the tracks on LP telling a single story.

In America the Summer of Love of 1967 saw a huge number of young people from across America and the world travel to the Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco, boosting the population from 15,000 to around 100,000. It was prefaced by the Human Be-In event in March and reached its peak at the Monterey Pop Festival in June, the latter helping to make major American stars of Janis Joplin, lead singer of Big Brother and the Holding Company, Jimi Hendrix, and The Who. Key recordings included Jefferson Airplane's Surrealistic Pillow, the first album to come out of San Francisco during this era, which sold well enough to bring the city's music scene to the attention of the record industry: from it they took two of the earliest psychedelic hit singles: "White Rabbit" (1967) and "Somebody to Love" (1967). The Doors' first hit single "Light My Fire" (1967), running for over seven minutes, became one of the defining records of the genre, although their follow up album Strange Days only enjoyed moderate success. Santana, led by guitarist Carlos Santana, used Latin rhythms as the basis for their psychedelic music.

These trends climaxed in the 1969 Woodstock festival, which saw performances by most of the major psychedelic acts, including Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, and the Grateful Dead. Psychedelic rock was glamorized on screen in Easy Rider (1969), which used songs including Steppenwolf's "Born to be Wild" as part of its soundtrack.

International expansion

The US and UK were the major centres of psychedelic music, but in the late 1960s scenes began to develop across the world, including continental Europe, Australasia, Asia and south and Central America.

Europe

In the later 1960s psychedelic scenes developed in a large number of countries in continental Europe, including the Netherlands with bands like The Outsiders, Denmark where it was pioneered by Steppeulvene, and Germany, where musicians began to fuse music of psychedelia and the electronic avant-garde. 1968 saw the first major German rock festival in Essen, and the foundation of the Zodiak Free Arts Lab in Berlin by Hans-Joachim Roedelius, and Conrad Schnitzler, which helped bands like Tangerine Dream and Amon Düül achieve cult status.

Australia and New Zealand

Although only a few singles gained recognition outside the region, the thriving Australian and New Zealand rock scenes that formed in wake of Beatlemania produced a wealth of inventive and original psychedelic pop and rock music. Much of this was strongly influenced by British psychedelia, since many bands included first-generation British (and European) immigrants, and bands such as The Twilights, whose members were British immigrants, were able to keep up to date on current musical developments, thanks to regular "care packages" of the latest singles and albums, tapes and cassettes of radio broadcasts, and even the latest Mod fashions, sent to them by family and friends back in the UK. After gaining local success, a number of these groups returned to the UK further their musical careers. The most internationally successful Australian pop-rock band of this period were The Easybeats, formed in Sydney in 1964 by a group of English, Scottish and Dutch immigrants, who scored a string of local hits in Australia and became hugely popular there before travelling to the UK. They recorded their international hit "Friday on My Mind" (1966) in London and remained there for their forays into psychedelic-tinged pop until they disbanded in 1970. A similar path was pursued by the Bee Gees, formed in Brisbane, but whose first album Bee Gees' 1st (1967), was recorded in London, and gave them three major hit singles and contained folk, rock and psychedelic elements, heavily influenced by the Beatles.

Two bands that formed in Adelaide in the mid-1960s also figured prominently in Australian psychedelic pop/rock. The Masters Apprentices started out as a gritty R&B band in the style of the early Rolling Stones and the Pretty Things, but they rapidly absorbed the changes in music spearheaded by The Beatles, and during 1967 they released several accomplished psychedelic singles - "Wars or Hands of Time" (the B-side of their 1966 debut single "Undecided") is generally regarded as the first Australian pop single to address the Vietnam War; their second single "Buried and Dead" (1967), showed the unmistakable influence of the nascent "Raga rock" genre, and their third single, the psych-pop classic "Living In A Child's Dream", became a major national hit and was voted "Single of the Year" by the readers of the Australian pop magazine Go-Set. The group also performed at one of the first psychedelic "happenings" in Australia, the "Living In A Child's Dream Ball", staged on 14 October 1967 at the University of New South Wales in Sydney, which featured a full psychedelic light-show, with liquid slide projections, smoke machines and mirror balls, with the band wheeled to the stage inside a specially-constructed giant die. All the groups' early singles tracks were penned by rhythm guitarist Mick Bower, who was sadly forced to quit the music scene for health reasons soon after "Living In A Child's Dream" was released, but after a period of upheaval, the band was able to continue with new members, scoring another Australian psych-pop hit in late 1967 with the classic Brian Cadd song "Elevator Driver". The Twilights, also formed in Adelaide and likewise became nationwide pop stars in the mid-1960s before making the trip to London. Here they recorded a series of minor hits, and absorbing the psychedelic scene, before returning home in mid-1967, where they performed the entire Sgt Pepper's album live on stage some weeks before its official release in Australia. This was followed by the release of their psychedelic 1968 concept album Once upon a Twilight.

Although The Easybeats were the only Australian band working in the psychedelic style to score a major international hit, many other Australian bands scored local or national hits with singles that were strongly influenced by psychedelic trends. This included the cult Brisbane-based group The Wild Cherries, led by guitarist Lobby Loyde, whose 1967 single "Krome Plated Yabby"/That's Life" combined influences from R&B, soul and psychedelia, and the single's driving B-side, "That's Life" is believed to be the first Australian pop single to employ phasing in its production. The most successful New Zealand band of the period, The La De Das, produced the psychedelic pop concept album The Happy Prince (1968), based on the Oscar Wilde children's classic, but failed to break through in Britain and the wider world.

Although British influences were predominant, a number of progressive Sydney-based groups such as Tamam Shud and Tully produced music that combined influences from Eastern mystical philosophy, avant-garde jazz and American psychedelic groups like The Grateful Dead and Jefferson Airplane. Both bands also regularly collaborated with the experimental Sydney film and light-show collective Ubu, and Tully were also notable for being the first Australian group to buy and use a Moog synthesiser, as well as performing as the house band in the original Australian stage production of Hair, which premiered in Sydney in 1969. Australian psychedelic music in the late 1960s peaked with the two singles by Melbourne singer Russell Morris. His 1969 solo debut "The Real Thing" (penned by mid-Sixties pop star Johnny Young) broke new ground in Australian popular music, both for its lavish production by Ian Meldrum and John L. Sayers - it was reputedly the most expensive Australian single ever produced up to that time - and for its running time of almost seven minutes, unprecedented for an Australian pop single. It became a national number one hit in Australia, where it charted for 23 weeks, and also went to number one on local charts in New York, Houston and Chicago. It was followed by "Part Three Into Paper Walls" (co-written by Young and Morris), which was deliberately crafted as a virtual "sequel" to "The Real Thing", featured similarly dazzling production, was just over seven minutes long, and gave Morris his second consecutive number one hit in Australia.

Asia

A thriving psychedelic music scene in Cambodia, influenced by psychedelic rock and soul broadcast by US forces radio in Vietnam, was pioneered by artists such as Sinn Sisamouth and Ros Sereysothea. In South Korea, Shin Jung-Hyeon, often considered the godfather of Korean rock, played psychedelic-influenced music for the American soldiers stationed in the country. Following Shin Jung-Hyeon, the band San Ul Lim (Mountain Echo) often combined psychedelic rock with a more folk sound. In Turkey, Anatolian rock artist Erkin Koray blended classic Turkish music and Middle Eastern themes into his psychedelic-driven rock, helping to found the Turkish rock scene with artists such as Cem Karaca, Mogollar and Baris Manco.

Latin America

Latin America proved a particularly fertile ground for psychedelic rock. The Brazilian psychedelic rock group Os Mutantes formed in 1966, although little known outside Brazil at the time (due to the fact that they recorded in Portuguese), they have since accrued a substantial international cult following. Os Mutantes also played a central role in the short-lived but revolutionary Brazilian aesthetic movement Tropicália, also known as 'Tropicalismo' (Tropicalism), an anti-authoritarian artistic reaction to the repressive military junta that seized power in Brazil in 1964. Encompassing visual art, theatre, poetry and music, Tropicália combined the popular and the avant-garde, and fused traditional Brazilian culture with foreign influences, including contemporary developments in British and American psychedelic music, and above all the music of The Beatles. As well as recording their own material, Os Mutantes collaborated with other key figures in the burgeoning Tropicalist movement, including singer-songwriter Gilberto Gil, whom they backed on Gil's second LP.

The musical manifesto of the Tropicalist movement was the landmark 1968 collaborative LP Tropicália: ou Panis et Circencis ("Tropicalia: or Bread and Circuses") which brought together the talents of Os Mutantes, Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso, Tom Zé and Gal Costa, with arrangements by avant-garde composer-arranger Rogerio Duprat (who had studied with Pierre Boulez) and lyrical contributions from poet Torquato Neto. The album's group cover photograph depicted the collective holding a variety of objects and images, in a deliberate reference to the cover of The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. The collective also performed a number of concert "happenings" which were intended to both involve and provoke audiences, and these reportedly had a similar effect on Brazilian audiences to that experienced by folk purists who witnessed Bob Dylan's early "electric" concerts - the performers sported long hair, wore outlandish psychedelic costumes, used electgric guitars and electronic amplification, and played at full volume. Brazil's military junta was becoming increasingly suspicious of the anarchic anti-establishment attitudes of the Tropicalistas, who also found themselves at odds with the nationalistic student left-wing, who favoured traditional Brazilian musical forms, and rejected what they saw as the corrupting influence of Western pop music. In September 1968 Caetano Veloso gave two tumultuous performances at the third annual International Popular Song Festival in Rio, where the audience included a large contingent of left-wing students who were vehemently opposed to the Tropicalistas. When Veloso (backed by Os Mutantes) performed in the first round of the Festival's song competition on 12 September, he was initially greeted with enthusiastic applause, but the situation soon turned ugly. Dressed in a shiny green plastic suit, festooned with electrical wires and necklaces strung with teeth, Veloso provoked the students with his sensual movements and his startling new psychedelic music, and he was soon being bombarded by loud insults, jeers and boos from the students, who became even more incensed when American pop singer John Dandurand made a surprise appearance on stage during the song. The ideological conflict climaxed three days later when Veloso returned for the second round of the competition on 15 September, at which he performed a new song entitled "Prohibido a Prohibir" ("It is Forbidden to Forbid"), which was recorded live and later released as single. The students began hissing and booing as soon as Veloso's name was announced, and when he began his performance, his overtly sexual stage moves and the experimental music of Os Mutantes provoked an outpouring of anger - the audience began booing so loudly stood that Veloso could barely be heard, and a large number then stood and turned their backs on the performers, prompting Os Mutantes to turn their backs on the audience. As the song continued, the students pelted the stage with fruit, vegetables, eggs, paper balls and anything else that came hand. Veloso stopped playing and launched into a furious monologue, in which he excoriated the students for their conservatism. After being joined by Gilberto Gil, who came on stage to show his support, Veloso finished his diatribe by telling the students "... if you are the same in politics as you are in aesthetics, we’re done for!" and declaring he was withdrawing from the competition. He then deliberately finished the song out of tune, angrily shouted "Enough!" and walked off arm-in-arm with Gil and Os Mutantes.

Tropicália had a major impact on the Brazilian music scene during its brief heyday (1967-68), and the main performers made regular appearances on Brazilian stage, television and radio, but the movement was abruptly shut down in early 1969, following a provocative December 1968 TV performance which parodied the Brazilian national anthem. Gil and Veloso were both arrested in February 1969 on the orders of the military junta - they were held in prison for three months without charge or trial, and after a further four months under house arrest, they were released on condition that they leave the country, and they spent the next few years in exile in the UK. Others in the Tropicalist movement were treated even more harshly - several were arrested and tortured, or forced to undergo psychiatric 'treatment'.

In the late 1960s, a wave of Mexican rock, heavily influenced by psychedelia and funk emerged, especially in northern border Mexican states, in particular, Tijuana, Baja California. Among the most recognized bands from this "Chicano Wave" (Onda Chicana in Spanish) were Three Souls in my Mind, Love Army, El Ritual and Los Dug Dug's. In Chile from 1967 to 1973, between the ending of the government of President Frei Montalva and the government of President Allende, a cultural movement was born from a few Chilean bands that emerged playing a unique fusion of folkloric music with heavy psychedelic influences. The 1967 release of Los Mac's album Kaleidoscope Men (1967) inspired bands such as Los Jaivas and Los Blops, the latter going on to collaborate with the iconic Chilean singer-songwriter Victor Jara on his 1971 album El derecho de vivir en paz. Meanwhile, in the Argentinian capital Buenos Aires, a burgeoning psychedelic scene gave birth to three of the most important bands in Argentine rock: Los Gatos, Manal and Almendra.

Decline

By the end of the 1960s, psychedelic rock was in retreat. LSD had been made illegal in the US and UK in 1966. In 1969, the murders of Sharon Tate and Leno and Rosemary LaBianca by Charles Manson and his "family" of followers, claiming to have been inspired by Beatles' songs such as "Helter Skelter", has been seen as contributing to an anti-hippie backlash. At the end of the same year, the Altamont Free Concert in California, headlined by the Rolling Stones, became notorious for the fatal stabbing of black teenager Meredith Hunter by Hells Angel security guards. Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys (whose much anticipated Smile project would not emerge until 2004), Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, Peter Green of Fleetwood Mac and Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd were early "acid casualties", helping to shift the focus of the respective bands of which they had been leading figures. Some groups, such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream, broke up. Jimi Hendrix died in London in September 1970, shortly after recording Band of Gypsys (1970), Janis Joplin died of a heroin overdose in October 1970 and they were closely followed by Jim Morrison of the Doors, who died in Paris in July 1971. Many surviving acts moved away from psychedelia into either more back-to-basics "roots rock", traditional-based, pastoral or whimsical folk, the wider experimentation of progressive rock, or riff-based heavy rock.

In 1966, even while psychedelic rock was becoming dominant, Bob Dylan spearheaded the back-to-basics roots revival when he went to Nashville to record the album Blonde on Blonde. This, and the subsequent more clearly country-influenced albums, John Wesley Harding (1967) and Nashville Skyline (1969), have been seen as creating the genre of country folk. Dylan's lead was also followed by The Byrds, joined by Gram Parsons to record Sweetheart of the Rodeo (1968), helping to define the genre of country rock, which became a particularly popular style in the California music scene of the late 1960s, and was adopted by former folk rock artists including Hearts and Flowers, Poco and New Riders of the Purple Sage. Other acts that followed the back to basics trend in different ways were the Canadian group The Band and the Californian-based Creedence Clearwater Revival. The Grateful Dead also had major successes with the more reflective and stripped back Workingman's Dead and American Beauty in 1970. The super-group Crosby, Stills and Nash, formed in 1968 from members of The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, and The Hollies, were joined by Neil Young for Deja Vu in 1970, which moved away from many of what had become the "clichés" of psychedelic rock and placed an emphasis on political commentary and vocal harmonies.

After the death of their manager Brian Epstein and the unpopular surreal television film, Magical Mystery Tour, the Beatles returned to a raw style with The Beatles (1968), Abbey Road (1969) and Let It Be (1970), before their eventual break up. The back to basics trend was also evident in The Rolling Stones' albums starting from Beggar's Banquet (1968) to Exile on Main St. (1972). Fairport Convention released Liege and Lief in 1969, turning away from American-influenced folk rock toward a sound based on traditional British music and founding the subgenre of electric folk, to be followed by bands like Steeleye Span and Fotheringay. The psychedelic-influenced and whimsical strand of British folk continued into the 1970s with acts including Comus, Mellow Candle, Nick Drake, The Incredible String Band, Forest and Trees and with Syd Barrett's two solo albums.


 
MekhanizmDate: Sa, 30.04.2016, 15:23 | Post # 5
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Influence

Other genres

As psychedelia emerged as a mainstream and commercial force, particularly through the work of the Beatles, it began to influence pop music, which incorporated hippie fashions, as well as the sounds of sitars, fuzz guitars, and tape effects. The Beach Boys' hit single "Good Vibrations" was one of the first pop songs to incorporate psychedelic lyrics and sounds. Scottish folk singer Donovan's transformation to 'electric' music gave him a series of pop hits, beginning with "Sunshine Superman", which reached number one in both Britain and the US, to be followed by "Mellow Yellow" (1966) and "Atlantis" (1968). American pop-oriented bands that followed in this vein included the Electric Prunes, the Blues Magoos and the Strawberry Alarm Clock. International acts such as the Bee Gees and the Easybeats were also prominent in the development of psychedelic pop. Psychedelic sounds were also incorporated into the output of early bubblegum pop acts like The Monkees and The Lemon Pipers.

Following the lead of Hendrix in rock, psychedelia began to have an impact on African American musicians, particularly the stars of the Motown label. This psychedelic soul was influenced by the civil rights movement, giving it a darker and more political edge than much acid rock. Building on the funk sound of James Brown, it was pioneered from about 1968 by Sly and the Family Stone and The Temptations. Acts that followed them into this territory included the Supremes, The Chambers Brothers, The 5th Dimension, Edwin Starr and the Undisputed Truth. George Clinton's interdependent Funkadelic and Parliament ensembles and their various spin-offs took the genre to its most extreme lengths making funk almost a religion in the 1970s, producing over forty singles, including three in the US top ten, and three platinum albums. While psychedelic rock began to waver at the end of the 1960s, psychedelic soul continued into the 1970s, peaking in popularity in the early years of the decade, and only disappearing in the late 1970s as tastes began to change. Acts like Earth, Wind and Fire, Kool and the Gang and Ohio Players, who began as psychedelic soul artists, incorporated its sounds into funk music and eventually the disco which partly replaced it.

Rock music

Many of the British musicians and bands that had embraced psychedelia went on to create progressive rock in the 1970s, including Pink Floyd, Soft Machine and members of Yes. King Crimson's album In the Court of the Crimson King (1969) has been seen as an important link between psychedelia and progressive rock. While bands such as Hawkwind maintained an explicitly psychedelic course into the 1970s, most dropped the psychedelic elements in favour of wider experimentation. The incorporation of jazz into the music of bands like Soft Machine and Can also contributed to the development of the jazz rock of bands like Colosseum. As they moved away from their psychedelic roots and placed increasing emphasis on electronic experimentation, German bands like Kraftwerk, Tangerine Dream, Can and Faust developed a distinctive brand of electronic rock, known as kosmische musik, or in the British press as "Kraut rock". The adoption of electronic synthesisers, pioneered by Popol Vuh from 1970, together with the work of figures like Brian Eno (for a time the keyboard player with Roxy Music), would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock. In Japan, Osamu Kitajima's 1974 psychedelic rock album Benzaiten utilized electronic equipment such as a synthesizer and drum machine, and one of the record's contributors was Haruomi Hosono, who later started the electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra (as "Yellow Magic Band") in 1977.

Psychedelic rock, with its distorted guitar sound, extended solos and adventurous compositions, has been seen as an important bridge between blues-oriented rock and later heavy metal. American bands whose loud, repetitive psychedelic rock emerged as early heavy metal included the Amboy Dukes and Steppenwolf. From England, two former guitarists with the Yardbirds, Jeff Beck and Jimmy Page, moved on to form key acts in the genre, The Jeff Beck Group and Led Zeppelin respectively. Other major pioneers of the genre had begun as blues-based psychedelic bands, including Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Judas Priest and UFO. Psychedelic music also contributed to the origins of glam rock, with Marc Bolan changing his psychedelic folk duo into rock band T. Rex and becoming the first glam rock star from 1970. From 1971 David Bowie moved on from his early psychedelic work to develop his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act.

Neo-psychedelia

1970s and 1980s

There were occasional mainstream acts that dabbled in neo-psychedelia, including Prince's mid-1980s work and some of Lenny Kravitz's 1990s output, but it has mainly been an influence on alternative and indie-rock bands. Psychedelic rock began to be revived in the late 1970s/early 1980s by bands of the post-punk scene, including the work of The Teardrop Explodes, Echo and the Bunnymen, The Church, the Soft Boys, Siouxsie and the Banshees, The Cure, The Glove, and The Legendary Pink Dots. In the US in the early 1980s these bands were joined by the Paisley Underground movement, based in Los Angeles, with acts like Dream Syndicate, The Bangles and Rain Parade. New wave band XTC published records under the pseudonym The Dukes of Stratosphear from 1985. Even Gothic rock band The Damned incorporated psychedelic music into their sound. The late 1980s saw the birth of shoegazing in the UK, which, among other influences, took inspiration from 1960s psychedelia. Critic Simon Reynolds described this movement as "a rash of blurry, neo-psychedelic bands". With loud walls of sound, where individual instruments and even vocals were often indistinguishable, they followed the lead of noise pop and dream pop bands such as My Bloody Valentine (often considered as the earliest shoegaze act), The Jesus and Mary Chain, and the Cocteau Twins. Major acts included Ride, Lush, Chapterhouse, and The Boo Radleys, who enjoyed considerable attention in the UK, but largely failed to break through in the US.

1990s to the present

In the 1990s the Elephant 6 collective, including acts like The Apples in Stereo, The Olivia Tremor Control, Neutral Milk Hotel, Elf Power and of Montreal, produced eclectic psychedelic rock and folk. Other alternative acts to pursue psychedelia from the 1990s included The Brian Jonestown Massacre, Porno For Pyros and Super Furry Animals. Stoner rock also emerged, combining elements of psychedelic rock, blues-rock and doom metal. Typically using a slow-to-mid tempo and featuring low-tuned guitars in a bass-heavy sound, with melodic vocals, and 'retro' production, it was pioneered by the Californian bands Kyuss and Sleep. In the UK the Madchester scene influenced the early sound of 1990s Britpop bands like Blur. The Verve mixed on 1960s psychedelia with the shoegazing aesthetic. Oasis also drew on 1960s psychedelic pop and rock, particularly on the album Standing on the Shoulder of Giants (2000). In the immediate post-Britpop era Kula Shaker incorporated swirling, guitar-heavy sounds of late-'60s psychedelia with Indian mysticism and spirituality. In the new millennium neo-psychedelia was continued by bands directly emulating the sounds of the 60s such as The Black Angels, Tame Impala, Pond, and The Essex Green, while bands like Animal Collective and The Bright Light Social Hour applied an experimental approach that combined genres from the 1960s and the present. Modern festivals focusing on psychedelic music include Austin Psych Fest in Texas, founded in 2008 and Liverpool Psych Fest.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychedelic_rock

List of psychedelic rock artists

The 13th Floor Elevators

The Amboy Dukes
Amon Düül II
Andromeda
The Animals
Aorta
Aphrodite's Child
Apple
Arzachel
Ash Ra Tempel
The Attack

Syd Barrett
Barış Manço
Beacon Street Union
The Beach Boys
The Beatles
Big Boy Pete
Big Brother and the Holding Company
The Birds
Blonde on Blonde
Blossom Toes
Blue Cheer
Blues Magoos
Blues Project
Bubble Puppy
The Byrds

Can
Captain Beefheart
The Charlatans
The Chocolate Watchband
The Churchills
Circus Maximus
Clear Light
The Collectors
Count Five
Country Joe and the Fish
Crazy World of Arthur Brown
Cream
The Creation

Dantalian's Chariot
Creation of Sunlight
The Deviants
Donovan
The Doors
Dr. John the Night Tripper
Dr. West's Medicine Show and Junk Band
Nick Drake

Earth Opera
Edgar Broughton Band
The Electric Prunes
Elmer Gantry’s Velvet Opera
The End (UK)
Erkin Koray

Family
Fever Tree
Fifty Foot Hose
Les Fleur de Lys
Flower Travellin' Band
Ford Theatre
The Frost
Frumious Bandersnatch
The Fugs
Funkadelic

Gandalf (US)
The Godz (NYC)
The Golden Dawn
Gong
Grateful Dead
The Great Society
Group 1850

H. P. Lovecraft
Hawkwind
High Tide
The Human Expression

The Idle Race
Incredible String Band
Iron Butterfly
It's a Beautiful Day

Jason Crest
Jefferson Airplane
The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Julian's Treatment
July

Kak
Kaleidoscope (US)
Kaleidoscope (UK)
King Crimson
Klaatu

The Litter
The Lollipop Shoppe
Lothar and the Hand People
Love

Mad River
The Mamas & The Papas
Man
Mighty Baby
The Misunderstood
Moby Grape
The Moody Blues
Moving Sidewalks
Morgen
The Music Machine
Mystic Tide

Nazz
Neighb'rhood Childr'n
Nirvana (UK)
The Nova Local

of Arrowe Hill
One in a Million
The Open Mind
Os Mutantes
The Other Half
The Outcasts (Texas)
The Outsiders (Netherlands)
Oxford Circle

The Paper Garden
The Paupers
The Peanut Butter Conspiracy
Pearls Before Swine
Pink Fairies
Pink Floyd
The Plastic Cloud
The Pretty Things
Procol Harum

Quicksilver Messenger Service

Ramases
Red Krayola
The Rolling Stones

Sam Gopal
The Savage Resurrection
The Savage Rose
The Seeds
Shiva's Headband
The Shocking Blue
Silver Apples
Skip Bifferty
The Small Faces
The Smashing Pumpkins
Soft Machine
Sons of Champlin
Sopwith Camel
Skip Spence
Spirit
SRC
Steppenwolf
Steve Miller Band
Strawberry Alarm Clock
The Syn

Temples
Them
The Third Bardo
Tintern Abbey
Tomorrow
Traffic
Tripsichord Music Box
Twink
Tyrannosaurus Rex

Ultimate Spinach
United States of America
Van Dyke Parks
Vanilla Fudge
Velvett Fogg

We the People
The West Coast Pop Art Experimental Band
The Who

The Yardbirds

The Zombies

Neo-psychedelia artists

Acid Mothers Temple
Allah-Las
Animal Collective
Apollo Sunshine
The Apples in Stereo
Arctic Monkeys
Ariel Pink's Haunted Graffiti

Beme Seed
The Bevis Frond
The Black Angels
Black Sun Ensemble
Black Mountain
The Brian Jonestown Massacre
Butthole Surfers

Charalambides
The Church
Circulatory System
Crystal Antlers

Darker My Love
Dr. Dog
The Dream Syndicate
The Dukes of Stratosphear
Dungen

Echo & the Bunnymen
Edward Sharpe & the Magnetic Zeros
Elf Power

The Flaming Lips
Foster the People
Foxygen

Ghost
The Green Pajamas
Guardian Alien

Robyn Hitchcock
Howlin' Rain

Ipso Facto

King Gizzard & the Lizard Wizard
Kula Shaker

Love and Rockets

Major Stars
Mandragora
The Mars Volta
Maru Sankaku Shikaku
Mercury Rev
MGMT
The Microphones
MU
The Music Tapes

Neutral Milk Hotel

Oasis
Of Montreal
The Olivia Tremor Control
Opal
Ozric Tentacles

Phish
A Place To Bury Strangers
Pond
Portugal. The Man

Queens of the Stone Age
Quest for Fire

Raccoo-oo-oon
Rain Parade
Ratatat

Screaming Trees
Shamall
Shy Nobleman
Sleepy Sun
Soundtrack of our Lives
Space
Spacemen 3
Sparklehorse
Spindrift
Spiritualized
Stardeath and White Dwarfs
Stress
SubArachnoid Space
Sun Dial
Super Furry Animals

Tadpoles
Tame Impala
Temples
The Verve

White Denim
Wolfmother
Wooden Shjips

Youth Lagoon

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_psychedelic_rock_artists


 
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